List of English loan words from Sanskrit via Latin, Greek, Persian

Look at the rich technical vocabulary of English. Isn’t it amazing that today we have so many new words created in English on almost a daily basis? Especially in evolving technical fields – Computer, Processor, Monitor, Internet, Hardware, Software, Branes, Quantum, etc. It is almost impossible to create words with similar meaning in other languages and so instead we simply loan these English words into our languages to keep pace with the rapidly evolving new terminology.

Any language during the times of its peak usage as a spoken language across large geographies will have its words imported into other languages that exist during that period. When Sanskrit was at its peak as a medium of education in India, and in the ancient Indian universities, words got imported into Greek, Latin, Persian, and of course into all languages of the Indian subcontinent from Sanskrit. These Sanskrit words have today silently form a vast majority of the original English Language. Because, English itself loaned words heavily from these ancient languages like Greek, Latin, Persian.

Many Indians ourselves fail to recognize the obvious phonetic and synonymous connection that exist between words in Indian languages (which have heavily loaned words from Sanskrit) and in English!

So I thought I better pen down a list of all such English words derived indirectly from the ancient Sanskrit.

“The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could not possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source which, perhaps, no longer exists; there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothick and the Celtick, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family” – Sir William Jones, at the 3rd annual discourse before the Asiatic Society on the history and culture of the Hindus (on 2 February 1786)

Sir William Jones was an the English Philologist who for the first time in 1786 suggested that Greek and Latin were related to Sanskrit and perhaps even Gothic, Celtic and Persian languages were related to Sanskrit.

It was this work which later led to the Proto-Indo-European theory which suggests that all Indo-European languages must have a common origin.

“I am convinced that everything has come down to us from the banks of the Ganges.” said Voltaire. He believed that the “Dynasty of Brahmins taught the rest of the world”.

Read about the Varna system to understand that Brahmin in ancient India was the title given to any knowledgeable person who had completed formal education, and was not a title earned due to birth in a family, as is the practice today. Brahmin in ancient India, was like the graduate of today.

“Mankind together with all science must have originated on the roof of the world i.e. the Himalayas” declared Immanuel Kant.

And here goes the list of English words derived from Sanskrit.

NOTE: Just to make it clear the below list does not contain Sanskrit words that have been directly borrowed into English in recent times like Karma, Avatar, Mantra, Guru, Cheetah, Pundit, Juggernaut, Nirvana, Lakh etc but lists only those English words which were derived from Sanskrit as English evolved by borrowing words from Greek/Latin etc.

Root Sanskrit WordMedian Word in Latin(L) / Greek(G) / Arabic(A)Derived English Word
Gau (meaning Cow)Bous (G)Cow
Matr (meaning Mother)Mater (L)Mother
Jan (meaning Generation)Genea (G)Gene
Aksha (meaning Axis)Axon (G)Axis
Navagatha (meaning Navigation)Navigationem (L)Navigation
Sarpa (meaning Snake)Serpentem (L)Serpent
Naas (means Nose)Nasus (L)Nose
Anamika (means Anonymous)Anonymos (G)Anonymous
Naama (means Name)Nomen (L)Name
Manu (means First Human)??Man/Men/Human
Ashta (meaning Eight)Octo (L)Eight
Barbara (meaning Foreign)Barbaria (L)Barbarian
Dhama (meaning House)Domus (L)Domicile
Danta (meaning Teeth)Dentis (L)Dental
Dwar (meaning Door)DoruDoor
Dasha (meaning Ten)Deca (G)Deca
Madhyam (meaning Medium)Medium (L)Medium
Kaal (meaning Time)Kalendae (L)Calendar
Kri (meaning To Do)Creatus (L)Create
Mishra (meaning Mix)Mixtus (L)Mix
Ma (meaning Me/My)Me (L)Me
Pithr (meaning Father)Pater (L)Father
Bhrathr (meaning Brother)Phrater (G)Brother
Loka (meaning Place)Locus (L)Locale
Maha (meaning Great)Magnus (L)Mega
Mala (meaning Dirt/Bad)Malus (L)Mal as in Malicious, Malnutrition, Malformed etc
Makshikaa (meaning Bee)Musca (L) (Meaning Fly)Mosquito
Mrta (meaning Dead)Mortis (L)Murder
Na (meaning No)NeNo
Nakta (meaning Night)Nocturnalis (L)Nocturnal
Paad (meaning Foot)Pedis (L)Ped as in Pedestrial, Pedal etc
Pancha (meaning Five)Pente (G)Penta, Five
Parah (meaning Remote)Pera (G)Far
Patha (meaning Path)Pathes (G)Path
Raja / Raya (meaning King)Regalis (L)Royal
Sama (meaning Similar)Similis (L)Similar
Sapta (meaning Seven)Septum (L)Seven
Sharkara (meaning Sugar)SuccarumSugar / Sucrose
Smi (meaning Smile)Smilen (L)Smile
SthaH (meaning Situated)Stare (L) (meaning To Stand)Stay
Svaad (meaning Tasty)Suavis (L)Sweet
Tha (meaning That)Talis (L)That
Tva (meaning Thee)DihThee
Vachas (meaning Speech)Vocem (L)Voice
Vahaami (meaning Carry)Vehere (meaning to Carry) (L)Vehicle
Vama / Vamati (meaning Vomit)Vomere (L)Vomit
Vastr (meaning Cloth)Vestire (L)Vest
Yauvana (meaning Youth)Juvenilis (L)Juvenile
Narangi (meaning Orange)NaranjOrange
Pippali (meaning Pepper)Piperi (G)Pepper
Chandana (meaning Sandalwood)Santalon (G)Sandalwood
Chandra (meaning Moon)Candela (L) (meaning light / torch)Candle
Chatur (meaning Four)Quartus (L)Quarter
Shunya (meaning Zero)Cipher (A)Zero
a (prefix meaning “not” ex: gochara – agochara)a (L)(G) (prefix meaning “not”)a (prefix meaning “not” ex: theiest-atheist
an (prefix meaning “not” ex: avashya – anavashya)un (L)(G) (prefix meaning “not”)un (prefix meaning “not” ex: do-undo
Arjuna (meaning Charm of Silver)Argentinum (L)Argentinum – Scientific Name of Silver
Nava (meaning New)Novus (L)Nova – New
Kafa (meaning Mucus)CoughenCough
Mithya (meaning Lie)Mythos (G)Myth
Thri (meaning Three)Treis (G)Three
Mush (meaning Mouse)Mus (L)Mouse
Maragadum (meaning Emerald)Smaragdus (L)Emerald
Ghritam (meaning Ghee)??Ghee
Srgalah (meaning Jackal)Shagal (Persian)Jackal
Nila (meaning Dark Blue)Nilak (Persian)Lilac
SrgalahShagal (Persian)Jackal
Man (Ma as in Malaysia) (meaning Mind)Mens (L)Mind
Upalah (meaning Precious Stone)Opalus (L)Opal
Vrihis (meaning Rice)Oriza (L)Rice
Upalah (meaning Precious Stone)Opalus (L)Opal
Barbar (meaning stammering)Barbaros (G)Barbarian
Jaanu (meaning knee)Genu (L)Knee
Sunu (meaning Son or Offspring)Sunu (German)Son
Ghas (meaning eat)Grasa (German)Grass
Samiti (meaning Committee)committere (L)Committee
Sama (meaning Same)Samaz (Proto Germanic)Same
Lubh (meaning Desire)Lubo (Latin and Proto Germanic)Love
Agni (meaning Fire)Ignis (L)Ignite
Hrt (meaning Heart)Herto (Proto Germanic)Heart
Yaana (meaning journey, wagon)Wagen (German)Van, Wagon
Nara (meaning Nerve)Nervus (L)Nerve, Nervous
They (th pronounced as in thunder, meaning they)Dei (Germanic)They
Pratiper (L)per
Prati Shat (meaning for every hundred, i.e percent)per centum (L)percent

201 COMMENTS

  1. It’s true that  Sanskrit is a very ancient language, but I’m going to side with the PIE theorists here.
    PIE is the theoretical ancestral mother tongue of humans inhabiting the Euro-Asian continent. It was constructed by linguists with the intention of perhaps displaying the apparent relationship and relatedness of the many languages spoken today in the European continent and the Indian subcontinent. It was not created to be definitive, but as an aid to understanding the evolution of language.
    It is proven that the languages of Europe, apart from Basque,  are related. They all are descendants from a common ancestral language. It is also proven that the languages of India are related to those spoken in Europe. They all share a common ancestor and  Sanskrit is amongst them.
    Nobody knows what the TRUE ancestral language sounded like –  it’s no longer spoken –  but with PIE we can get a (hopefully) close approximation.
    Sanskrit is old, but it’s not as old as the Proto-Indo-European language needs to be to claim to be the true mother tongue.

  2. डेन् महोदयस्य वादानुवाद् पठित्वा ‘कन्चिन् देशे एकः राजः आसित्” एतत् कथा स्म्रिति मध्ये आगतवन्तः!!!

    “मूर्खस्य पंच चिन्हानि ‘गर्वा, दुर्वचनं, क्रोधश्च, द्रिढवादश्च परवाक्येष्वनादरः”

  3. i know what pradeeps say and I am happy that whatever i learnt in sixth standard is still retained in my memory is somewhat vaguely … foolish people have five symptoms pride, fowl mouthed,haught tempered,bull headed and arrogant(disrespecting others words).

  4. संस्क्रुतम् एवम् मात्तूर्(षिमोग)ग्रामस्य संबन्ध भवान् जानति किला?

  5. Agree with you on this, works by many western scholars are very much appreciable, especially by Stephen Knap. he is fully knowledgeable than we many Indians.
    I think Thava’s was a generic statement considering few western criticizing souls. In-fact a considerable fraction of us are troubled/troubling the growth of Sanskrit.

  6. Regarding the word ghrtam for ‘ghee’ i would like to add that in the PIE, the root is “ghrein” meaning “to apply, smear or anoint” since anointing or applying ghee was a major use.the greek word “christos” is a descendant of the word “ghrein” meaning “the anointed one”.

  7. Cool compilation…

    Thought to add MaxMuller intrepretation of history, geography, language etc etc… motive behind it…
    Its difficult to tell and listen truth – blunders in our History(not just India’s)

    So this is a wise step towards telling the truth- zara hatke…

     

  8. few more to above list
    hruday – heart
    mana/manas – mind
    anga – organ
    gam (verb dhatu- ) – go
    garv-arrogance.
    .
    .
    list is endless

  9. sanskrit                   latin/greek                                 english

    Ashwa                     Equus                                            Equestrian 
    Kramelak               Camelus/kemalos                   Camel
    Manthan                Manthanein/Mathema          Mathematics
    Yugam                    Jugum                                          Yoke
    Ugra                        via german                                  Anger
    Chitrkaya                                                                       Cheeta
    Janu                        Genu                                              Genuflect
    Dhara                      Terra                                             Terra-
    Ghas                         via geman                                   Grass

    There are many more but I am too tired to type right now

  10. I was seeing discovery channel and suddenly i was shocked when host there told that in Freanch pineapple is called   “Ananas”. Infact “Ananas” is what we/ I call it(pineapple) in marathi.
    So from marathi or sanskrit.
    sanskrit/Marathi   French
    Ananas  <—> Ananas
    :):)

  11. Gurudev,
    From what I understand, the origins of Sanskrit letter is also very interesting. The work was carried out by Bharatwaj rishi. A bamboo stick was taken and a piece of cloth/bag tied at one end and dust introduced into the bamboo. Each letter was chanted for nearly six hours and this caused the dust particles to align itself as per the letter chanted. Can you please verify this, would it be in in vedic scrpitures under Kalpa shaastra?   

  12. Dear Gurudev,I’m Dr.AshwinSawant,from Mulund,Mumbai. I wish to present some points in ur support:
    1.Vindhyas r d latest Azoic rocks of India of pre-Cambrian age which proves India to be a land in the latest Azoic times,somewhere in 70,000,000 and 60,000,000 yrs.
    2.Vedas are accepted as most ancient literature in the world
    created by mankind,which are doubtlessly Indian in origin.Vedas  do not  mention any place outside India as origin of Creaters Writers of  Vedas.
    3.In Vedic Literature Himalaya Mountain is mentioned as “Uttaram Girim(i.e.Northern Mountains)In case creators of Vedas ( & of Sanskrit language) had been foreigners ,they should have called these mountains as Eastern or Southern Mountain.

  13. Dear Dr.Ashwin Sawant,

    Points are useful and informative.  But just a correction Reg point 2) Veda’s creation and origin
    Vedas are “Apaurusheya”.. not human creation..but God creation.
    They are not in writtern form .. they are in “Nada/Shruti” form.
    The existing oldest Veda scripts are in Sanskrit language.
     
    God shows the benifit of following Vedas to mankind by setting himself as example by Vedas usage.  And the origin is not India but universal…  but been followed and not destroyed only in India.  For eg: There were 108 Sri Ganapathy temples across the world .. like Japan, China, South America etc.  but were destroyed except in India .  India is the place where Hindu dharma and Vedas are “Avicchinna” – can not be destroyed…
    Correct any mistakes above.
    – ursri

  14. Dear Gurudev,
    You inspire me just the way my Yoga guru at yogashree inspires me. Keep up the good work and step up the gas for an enlightened Maha”Bharata”. I wish learn to spread lost glory about our great country and Hindutva. That way everyone will learn the Hindu way of life of living and learning in harmony with nature fellow human beings. Congratulations on taking the initiative.!
    As they say at Yogashree….
    Ayshman Bhavatu
    Keertiman Bhavatu
    Mangalam Bhavatu
    Shubham Bhavatu

  15. Dear Guruji,
    Amazing… is all what I can say. I am writing this only for conveying a point. We as Indians find it easy to understand this truth. Most others would find it difficult to accept that anything came from a country that is beneath them (beneath them in their financial eyes). No matter how many times a lie is repeated by the most powerful communities today, a lie is still a lie.
    On the other hand, if we as Indians learn,appreciate and practise our language more and more and make it more and more powerful,no force can diminish the light that emancipates from us,cos we are just repeating the truth!.It is sad that when some westerners write books on our sanskrit,we appreciate it. I wish we Indians would state these things on our own.
    Who wants their acceptance!.Didnt we tide out time without them? As Indians we should chant these things boldly!Dont feel scared of their ridicule.The bottom line is,if we develop our roots and our financial position, then most of the world will yield(even if we dont want them to yield).
    Its all finance based eyes in this world.If india was the richest country,everyone including Indians would have no problem in accepting the truth of Sanskrit.Its a shame,but nevertheless we should always strive and make ourselves more powerful financially and keep learning and practising our culture including the mother of all language Sanskrit until the world either yields or goes for a senseless war…in which case…the universal rule would then apply. Dharma samsthapanarthaya…sambavami yuge yuge!.
    Adharma will lose. But for that the Arjuns and Bheems of india need to stand boldly and develop financially and state what they believe in boldly!.We are not lying! y shud we be scared!.Find out more about sanskrit ourselves,practise it more,clean our country and lets together revive our true position in the world!.The world SHALL KNEEL IN RESPECT…NOT FEAR.. AND YIELD.

  16. Namo Namaha
    Great Post.
    Would
    Dwaaram – Door
    Tri – Three, C
    Chathur – Four
    Sapta -Seven
    Ashta – Eight
    Nava – Nine
    Sagara – Sea
    Prithvi – Earth

    also come under the same?

  17. Very nice, amazing. I would like to say something about a comment by ‘ursri’ that the Vedas were not written/created by God but by humans. I have read in a book by Osho that there is a description of a man praying to God in the Vedas. According to Osho, how can God himself write about his devotees praying to him? The Vedas describe human activities, thus they are written by people (human beings). To know about Osho, go to http://www.osho.com . An interesting website: http://www.archaeology.net . The word Upalah/Opal is repeated in the list.(total twice).

  18. I being a Indian but now staying out of country, will be showing pride to foreigners to demostrate a project on such information.. Jai Hind

  19. ..pranaam! Sir! Your list is excellent. I’m also working on a list showing the phonetic slide from Sanskrit into English. Anyone doing the slightest amount of research in this field will quickly discover his/her own mother tongue, his/her own ‘lap’ Bharat varsha) , his/her own soul, divine atma, and his/her own place of rest, Goloka Vrindavana! Jai Sri Radhe!

  20. Sanskrit had few more letters than Pali as Greek has than Latin. You should go further, even more interests will come. I have wondered about this since I was young. You get rid the Ghost PIE out from my mind. Thanks.

  21. We have inquiries from various continents regarding the name of continents and Ghandas and rashtras in Sanskrit .If any body know it Please  send a message 

  22.  This is an amazing research and a fabulous list of english words with sanskrit origin.  I was surprised to see so many common english words having roots in the ancient sanskrit language of India. We really take so many things in life for so granted. Keep up the good work.

  23. Just saw the comment below about the Russian word “Medved” and its link to honey. That struck a chord about the old Celtic name “Medb” (and its modern equivalent Maeve).. Here’s the link to Wikipedia:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maeve_(Irish_name)

    It’s quite interesting that there seems to be a relationship between Russian, Irish and Sanskrit 🙂

  24. Old Languages Are The Foundation Of All Modern Languages Therefor Not Giving Them Importance We Show A Weakness In Our Own Educational Background !!

  25. There are many more actually, e.g.

    Miti (San) – Metry (Eng), as in Trigonometry, Sanskrit would be Trikonaamiti

    Trikon (San) – Trigon (Eng), more popularly known as Triangle. Which is consistent with geometrical fact that any closed figure would have as many sides as it has angles

    Par (San) means beyond, as in parbramh – Para (Eng) as in paranormal – that what is beyond the established physical laws

    Antar (San) means across or between – Inter (Eng) as in International – Between or across nations

    Vid (San) means to know, or to see as in Vidvaan (Kwoledgeable, intelligent), Veda (knowledge), in both these cases it is used in the sense of knowing – Video, Visual, Vision (Eng) all derived by transfer through Latin Videre in all these cases it is used in the sense of seeing

    Aham (San) means I am – I am (Eng) means the same

    Jaggannaath (San) means lord of the world – Juggernaut (Eng)

    Manti or Mantrin, a declension of Mantri (San) – Mandarin (Eng, Chi) means administrators, as well as the name of their language

    Kroor (San) means cruel – Cruel (Eng)

    Samarth (San) means able, capable – Smart (Eng)

    Varn (San) means many things like letters, complexion, colour etc. – Varnish (Eng) to colour

    There are many, but can’t recollect more.

  26. Its a good artcle.. These days everyday we are talking about relation between sanskrit/indian languages and english/german…

    few more from my side ..

    Yuyam(sanskrit) – You (E)

    Vayam (S) – We (E)

    ID/Ithi (S) – It (E)

    Thath (S) – That

    Nayanam (S) – Eye (E)

    Vahaka (S) – Vehicle

    Vahana (S) – Wagon

    Kaala ( S) – Kill ( E)

    (its synonym to Yama, who ends lives. Maha Kaala means Shiva – Master to Yama )

    Pitha ( S) – Pittutory

    Bandha (S) – Bond

    Viewha(S) – View

    Also found some interesting Telugu – English

    Telupu (Telugu) – Tell (E)

    Grasam ( Telugu) – Grass (English)

    Nasa ( Telugu) – Noise (E)

  27. Even English calender has indian origian. Saptember, October, November and December are representing 7th, 8th, 9th and 10 th month (mass). Westerner used to come India to learn vedic knowledge and tried to copy some methodology. They mistakely create calender of 10 mass ( starting from Unember… december) December is X mass (10th mass) represent for Kirshna mass ( Marshish). In fourteen century, westerner realise the mistake but added 2 months later in name of their great leaders. They added 1 day for few months ( instead of 30 days). Our calender is real natural driven calender.

  28. The FOUR VEDAS, the origin of all TRUE knowledge, in other words I would say the USER MANUAL of HUMAN RACE. No one can challenge it, if we analyse our sufferrings today I am 100% sure that we have departed from the VEDAS, it’s an open challenge to prove me wrong. As we all say it’s never too late so MANAVE (hey another sanskrit word) back to the VEDAS. Om Shaanti Shaanti Shaanti OM

  29. Learning samskritam is like the best thing you could do to your life…the science & logic in samskritam is beyond human imagination….Only our rishis could do that…

  30. Absolute utter nonsense – the most dangerous form of ignorance is on display here. Avestan, Sanskrit, the European languages, and ancient Hittite et al all derived from Proto-Indo-European. Sanskrit is a relatively new Indo-European language compared to Avestan, HIttite, Sumerian (possibly), Ancient Greek, and Old Iranian, and not to mention the countless Indo-European languages lost to antiquity. Not to mention that the oldest form of Sanskrit is Vedic Sanskrit, which is as far removed from Panini’s Sanskrit as Ancient Greek is from Modern Greek.

  31. What a load of crap. “The vedas were written in sanskrit” – the vedas were not witten down, they were memorized and then transmitted orally. Just as no one KNOWS how old the vedas are, in the same way no one knows for sure about the existence of PIE. But thanks to certain methods we are able to guess how old the vedas are and suppose the existence of PIE. There were suggestions of how some missing links in the chains of IE languages should sound and upon the actual discovieries the hypotheses were confirmed. It all fits.

  32. “Calendar” has absolutely nothing to do with “kālayantra.” “Calendar” is related to the Latin “calare” while the Sanskrit “kālayantra” literally means “time machine.

  33. This is whole article is garbage: the supposed English derivations are related, but not descending from, those supposed Sanskrit ancestors. Just as evolution holds that man diverged from a common ancestor as monkey, but that man did not directly originate from monkeys, all credible linguistic experts who are not motivated by irrational patriotism and nationalism hold that Proto-Indo-European is the ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Therefore, those English and Sanskrit words diverged from a common Proto-Indo-European ancestor, and there is nothing else to be said!

  34. I am astounded by the ignorance in the latest comments. They have no knowledge of the root of Indianism, the very inception of Asiatic Society. It was the Germans who first took interest in the Aryan languages and admitted that Europeans derive their language and culture from a higher source. The English, being the new world rulers, the nuvo riche, couldn’t find the humility in them to admit this. Consequently, they distorted history to suit their own pride. But truth remains that modern day languages like English, French, Spanish, Hindi are impure languages, with a lot of discrepancy in written and spoken forms and absolutely irrational orthographic aberration.
    It is not without a reason that we use Greek and Latin in scientific and other works of significance.
    While we do not know for sure, which is more ancient Avestan/Hitite or Sanskrit, one should note these languages were very conflicting. The word for deity in Sumer was Asura (Ahura), which is the exact Sanskrit for Anti-God.
    So it’ll take a very well read linguist to conclude which among the two languages has more contribution towards European and Indian languages of today.
    But there is absolutely no doubt that Greek and Latin came later. The literature of ancient Europe and middle east had little imagination, science and complex terms compared to Sanskrit and Avestan.

    But the trend of synthesis, that is forming new words from a common root, that is something the whole world has borrowed from Sanskrit. Without Sanskrit, “Believe” and “Believer” would have been two entirely unrelated words.

    It’s hard to put this concept into a western mind, I’ll try this: Suppose you are called Thomas and you have a newborn son whom you want to name Son-of-Thomas, but you cannot, it sounds uncool, even the french de- ones would be kind of uncool. Had you been a Sanskritagna(a person who has a good knowledge of Sanskrit) person you’d have the power to give the child a meaningful one word custom name. And there’d be no need to update a dictionary for that new word. Sanskrit is a code, it’s an ever evolving program.

  35. The indonesian archipelagos also absorbed “millions” of sanskrit vocabs. The sanskrit vocabs i already know help me a lot in memorizing english and french vocabs.

  36. I am anthropologist and have studies this extensively. The author is correct there is absolutely no evidence of a PIE language or people. There is also NO evidence of an “Aryan” invasion in India. There is much archeological evidence in fact that Greeks themselves were descendants of some indian sects.

  37. This is awesome! Thank you for this list. I have read the dictionary for fun my whole life, (yes, I’m a total word geek) and I’ve always remarked that the Sanskrit words are actually closer to the English words in many cases than what I was always told was the Latin or Greek root. The word rhythm is directly from Sanskrit, for instance. The Germanic word nacht (night) came directly from Sanskrit. Raja and raya are fascinating words. The words for exulted that we would use like “your eminence” for a royal person are related to the words for “light”, which has always made sense to me, as in Holiness, greatness, eminence, like emanating light. The sun God Re or Ra in Egypt is related to the English word “ray” as in ray of light , which is also related to raya and royal. Makes perfect sense to me. These words are ancient — Really ancient. I was told as a little girl that we spoke an Indo-European language but, then I was taught all the Greek and Latin roots, or the French roots of the words when in a surprising number of cases, the Sanskrit words were closer than those. I love this page!

    • What about:
      Sanskrit para>>>>parallel, paragraph, etc.
      Sanskrit navgathi>>>>>navy, navigate, nautical, etc.
      Sanskrit oopar>>>>>upper, uber
      Sanskrit khatva>>>>cot, cottage
      Sanskrit vidva>>>>>widow
      Sanskrit vikshan>>>>vision
      Sanskrit janam>>>>>gene, genome, genesis, etc.
      Sanskrit sitara>>>>>star
      Sanskrit anth>>>>>>end
      Sanskrit pura>>>>>>pure, whole
      Sanskrit Shabdh>>>>Sabbath, the Word (of God)
      Sanskrit nastik>>>>>gnostic
      Sanskrit sahara>>>>>sahara
      Sanskrit naya>>>>>>new, renew, etc.

  38. common -saman

    communist-samuhnisth

    commerce-sahmarsh

    sweat-swed

    cruel-krur

    prayer -prarthna ,prar -thna

    case -kosh

    survey-servexan

    shampoo -champoo – champi

    folk-lok

    ear – k-ear-n,

    ape – k-ape

    apple -phal (pine-apple,custord-apple -sitafal ,jamfal ….)

    automobile -atm-bal

    corner -cona

    shame-sharm

    better-behtar

    pedal -paidal

    mature – KA-mature

    limit-simit

    brilliant-birla

    enemy -anam

    asylum- ashrayam

    fertility -faltiti

    spectecals -spasht-karas

    bubble -bulbule

    adore – aadar

    dictionary -dixantary

    becholar -brahamchari

    king -cing -singh

    divinity -devniti

    abbey -abhay

    centre -kendra

    intermidiate -antar madhyasth

    curriculam -gurukulam

    hashband-hastbandh

    bondage -bandhan

    derm -cherm

    surrender -saran-dhar

    quote -kahavat

    atom -atma

    permanent -param anant

    paramount -param-unnt

    mount -mahaunnt

    sir -sri

    years -versh

    song -sangit

    succint -sunkshipt

    advocate -adhivakta

    dismay -vismay

    urgent -urja

    unity -uti

    duty-dayiti dayitv
    settle-santul
    news-navaj-navajuni
    romance -romanch
    municipality -manush-palti,
    accept -akshipt
    succint-sankshipt
    expected-apexit
    tree -taru
    adore-aadar
    preacher-pracharak
    commodore-samunder
    boat -poat(yudhh poat)
    cottage-utaj
    magic-maayik,maayavi
    music -mousique -mahasukh,mahasukhi
    rope-rajju ,rassi
    courage -sourge -shaurya
    creat/creator/creation -kriya,karya,karta
    urgent -urja
    night-naktam
    court-cot
    lady -laad,laadka,ladki,ladi
    canto-kaand
    gentel-santul ,gentelmen-santulman
    profet -prapat (aakash se gira)
    news-nyuj
    nemesis -naamsesh
    ass- ashva
    damn-daman
    please -prasid
    cide-chhid
    commune,communist,community -samuh,samuhnisth,samuhnit
    path-path
    character-charitra,
    kennel-swanal
    myth -mithya
    super -shu.param
    long-lamb
    decimal-dasamlav
    thirst-trushna
    foot-paad ,podium,tripod,pedestrian
    letter-patra
    eat-ati
    be-bhav
    town,station-sthan
    pleasant-prashant
    BEHAVIOUR-VYAVHAR
    BUY-VYAY
    BUSY-VYAST (BUYST)
    thirst-trushna
    anger -angar
    divide- dvi-vidh
    ceramic -karabh h,kichad
    bathe- baad,baadh
    name -naam
    understand-antarsthayin
    janyuari -gan-rai-ish ,
    tragedy -trasdi
    stress -trast

  39. it’s really amazing! thank you everyone to posting similarities in English and Samskrit as well to whom criticizing the same that motivates to dig into more and to find out facts.let us talk about the fact as we know Samskrit is alone non-ambiguous language in the world best suitable for our intelligence,space software with robustness(high accuracy and no failure)2.Samskrit is alone language that has more child languages 3.non comparable best grammar ever.

    it’s not matter of whether English is derived from Samskrit or vice verse. going forward what we do we decommission old thing adopt new feasible thing as per to met requirements(easiness,enhancements,etc).

    for me it seems English is more modern language designed to met requirement like less vocal effort (so we can speak in less effort more),less alphabet set (so we can represent all the words in less alphabets) and more you guys can add.

    we can’t say like “This is whole article is garbage:” what we can do keep post our findings to educate about the facts for this we need to do a lot of research to prove them if it really holds or not then only people will believe, also please post some useful links as well.

    i appreciate this post.

  40. This is not new, but what is diplorable is the way the Indians have discarded the sacred language of humanity, that is Sanskrit. It is the language that enjoins in itself the very essence and science of life.

  41. Without doubting the above text in it’s whole, never the less I found it difficult as a Greek, that certain VERY TYPICAL GREEK WORDS such as ANONYMOUS to be of Indian origin! In my country this is a combined word deriving FROM TWO DIFFERENT WORDS…..ANEF (Without) and ONOMA (Name). Automatically we can see that there are two different words and NOT ONE as this text here shows us! Additionally….linguists and anthropologists already proved that words such as these, come DIRECTLY from ancient GREEK language AND NOT derive from foreign influences! That we do have lot’s of hindi words in our vocabulary (such as KIMA = minced meat, or SAHLE = Fool) that is indeed without a doubt, a fact! After all…..they were our territory too (under Alexander the Great of course) once upon a time, and of course influences would be plenty, but there are a ton of words and phrases that are scientifically OURS and NOT THEIRS. Finally let’s not forget that in many occasions WE GREEKS TOO, INFLUENCED THEM WITH OUR LANGUAGE AS WELL, AND NOT ONLY THEM TO US! Such things occasionally do happen, between brothers in a family! And the Indians are our brothers and we are theirs too! Alexander see to it so that we would become as one! God bless him!

  42. Nemesis – Anamika is also composed of three words – 1) a prefix An , meaning not ( as in un in English), 2) Naam as in Name ( same as in Greek Onoma), and 3) a suffix “Ika” meaning with, similar to Greek suffix “ous” meaning having that property. So Sanskrit and ancient Greek are directly and closely related. I would not give too much credence to Western Anthropologists and linguists as they do not get the evidence staring in front of them due to prior wrong focus and training in absence of clear facts. Dhiru

  43. Yeah…well…you do whatever you like, but stop messing in our turf! You guys wanna boost Indian morale, and by doing so, you’re aiming (or so it seems) to push aside other (AS EQUALY IF NOT MORE ANCIENT TO YOURS) languages in order to achieve that! Well….as actor Bill Murray said back in the 1988 movie “Scrooged”…….”Back off big guy…this might work with the chicks but not with me”!

  44. NEMSIS2 seems like you are greatly butt hurt by this article. This observation is made by noticing your replies to almost each comment in this comment sections, seems to me the truth hurts…

  45. Dear author, I hope you are still watching the comments on this article. I’m so happy to see you point out the similarities between Sanskrit and European tongues. This, for some reason, gets only scant attention from western readers. I’m willing to wager, however, that you have not a shred of evidence that other Indo-Aryan/Indo-European languages are derived directly or even indirectly from Sanskrit (you’re correct that there’s limited evidence of PIE as well – that is, sadly, the nature of evidence of the ancient and pre-ancient world). Even if there were some body of knowledge to which you could point, it wouldn’t really prove that much, would it? Languages change, often for the worse, sometimes for the better, which is why many people in the north the Subcontinent use Hindi-Urdu as lingua franca. It has been enriched by Sanskrit and Prakrit variants, Dravidian words, Persian and Arabic-via-Persian, English and a host of other influences. I would focus more time embracing Hindi (which gets scoffed at as something impure, as if there ever were a pure language) than clinging to a fabled past.

  46. The Language of the Harappans: From Akkadian to Sanskrit
    This is a book how Sanskrit develloped from Akkadian. Assyrian was a dialect of Akkadian. Of course other words mixed in, but many european words have semitic roots from ancient times.

  47. Hi i am from greece. I don’t know Sanskrit but i do know ancient greek. You tell us about latin language. Latin alphabet derives from ancient (greek) Halcideon Alphabet. Every word of latin language derives from ancient greek (doric dialect). Also many of the words of sanskrit derives from ancient doric dialect. For example Mycenaean Greek (ma-te-re), doric greek dialect μάτηρ (mátēr), ionic greek dialect μήτηρ (mitir), Greek: μητέρα (mitéra), , Latin mater, Phrygian matar, Sanskrit mā́tṛ. As you see latin word its the same with ancient doric word and Sanskrit almost the same! So what happened?! Before 7-10 thousands of years a civilization who spokes ancient doric language made colonies to italy, egypt, india,china, japan, polinisia(greek word means many islands), Easter Island, chile and many other places. The spread their ancient doric dialect and their civilization and everything that we know begins. So why they have been forgotten? Ofcourse many thousands of years have passed, but the main problem was that the spartians who spoken the doric language, had lost the war with the athenians. The athenians eradicated every information, book,etc about them. So i believe that before 2500 years this civilization fall forever. The greek language derives from ancient ionic dialect, and thats the reason that we have some differences in pronunciation with the latin language.

  48. This is a great resource and fascinating display of cultural cross-fertilization. Does anyone know if the word “Krishna” from the Sanskrit “krshnah” can be connected to the word “Christ” via the Latin “christus” and earlier Greek “khristos”?
    They sound similar but have such different literal meanings (aside from religious connotations).
    Thanks to all

  49. Sir, where could we find the full list of dhatis? i’ve found a dhatukosha and dhatupatha (not sure what the difference is) where the meanings are explained in english, but the dhatus themselves are in devangari script (which i can’t read). I can see how the the dhatupatha would come handy if one wanted to understand a written sanskrit text, but it doesn’t help when one is trying to decipher the meaning of sanskrit names when they are written in latin script. is there a list where both the dhatus and their meanings are written in latin script for us western dummies? (basically, the way you posted the root sanskrit words, but all 2012 of them) Thank you for the interesting and educational articles!

  50. sanskrit is not the oldest but one of the oldest languages. Greek is about as old as sanskrit and they both have similar roots. english borrowing from only sanskrit is a theory not a fact. words could be from greek or sanskrit or PIE, which you mentioned as a follower to sanskrit. It is actually the apparent parent language to both greek and sanskrit.

  51. know=gnosis=jna….This is from PIE root *gno- “to know” (source also of Old Persian xšnasatiy “he shall know;” Old Church Slavonic znati, Russian znat “to know;” Latin gnoscere; Greek *gno-, as in gignoskein; Sanskrit jna- “know”). I would also make the case for a connection between the sanskrit words agni and jna,,,as light, which fire is the source of, is always connected with the ability to know or perceive,,,light is often metaphorically used for consciousness. We can easily see the similarity between the words ignite and gnosis and knowledge,,,,

  52. Sanskrit word kevat(Boat man) become english word caption.
    Sanskrit Kevat > letin caput > english captain

  53. It is not surprising Sanskrit is mother of all languages.. it is a historical fact that human civilization started in Indus valley in India and Nile valley in Egypt thousands of years before Jesus Christ was born.

  54. These are words derived from proto Indo European language into Sanskrit as well as into Latin/ Greek/ English.
    They are not words derived from Sanskrit.

  55. Pregnant is from sanskrut word prajanan (g=j),paramount/param unnat(परम् उन्नत),buy /व्यय vyay, busy/व्यस्त byast ,municipality/मनुषयपालती,fairy/परी pari, foreign/परगना,advocate/adhivkta ,congress/sanghrsh संघर्ष ,donate/dan दान,

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